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What Concrete Is Made Of?

Concrete is an essential construction material used in various building projects worldwide. With its ability to provide strength and durability, it’s no wonder that many are curious about what concrete is made of. In this extensive blog post, we will explore the composition of concrete, its different types, and their uses in construction.

Concrete is essentially a blend of cement, air, water, sand, and gravel – a straightforward composition, yet there’s more to it. Typically, a standard concrete mix comprises about 10% cement, 20% air and water, 30% sand, and 40% gravel. This ratio is often referred to as the 10-20-30-40 Rule, although the exact proportions can differ based on the cement type and various other considerations.

The Four Main Ingredients of Concrete

To answer the question, “what is concrete made of?”, let’s first examine its four main ingredients:

    1. Portland cement

    1. Water

    1. Coarse aggregate

    1. Fine aggregate

These ingredients work together to create a composite material that forms the basis of concrete mixtures. Each of these components plays a crucial role in achieving the desired properties of concrete, such as strength, durability, and workability.

Portland Cement

Portland cement, a type of hydraulic cement, serves as the binding material in concrete mixtures. It is made by heating raw materials like limestone, clay, shale, and iron ore in a kiln, then grinding the resulting clinker into a fine powder. The most commonly used cement in the construction industry, portland cement, contributes significantly to the hardened concrete’s strength and durability. The cement paste that forms when water is added to the cement plays a crucial role in binding the aggregates together in the concrete mix.


Water is essential in the concrete mix, as it reacts with the cement to form a cement paste. This chemical reaction, known as hydration, results in the hardening of the cement and the development of the concrete’s compressive strength. The water to cement ratio has a significant impact on the properties of fresh concrete and the resulting hardened concrete. It is crucial to maintain an appropriate balance to achieve the desired workability and strength. The water to cement ratio also affects the wet concrete’s ability to be placed and compacted before it hardens.

Coarse Aggregate

Coarse aggregate, typically crushed stone or gravel, is an essential component of concrete mixtures. It provides bulk and contributes to the compressive strength of the hardened concrete. Coarse aggregates come in various sizes and types, which can affect the concrete’s overall properties, such as its density and workability. The coarse aggregate’s size and shape can also influence the amount of cement paste required to coat the aggregate particles, which in turn affects the cement ratio in the concrete mix.

Fine Aggregate

Fine aggregate, usually sand, fills the voids between the coarse aggregate particles and helps to create a more cohesive concrete mix. It also contributes to the concrete’s workability and overall appearance, as it helps to create a smooth surface when the concrete is finished. The fine aggregate’s size and shape can also influence the amount of cement paste required to coat the aggregate particles, which in turn affects the cement ratio in the concrete mix.

Difference Between Cement and Concrete

Many people often confuse cement and concrete as the same thing, but they are not. Cement, specifically portland cement, is a fine powder used as a binding material in concrete mixtures. On the other hand, concrete is a composite material made of cement, water, and aggregates, resulting in a hardened mass with specific properties suitable for construction applications.

Types of Concrete

There are numerous types of concrete, each with unique properties and applications. Some of the most common types include:

h3>Normal Concrete

Normal concrete is the most common type of concrete used in construction projects. It is made using a basic concrete mix of portland cement, water, and aggregates, resulting in a material with a compressive strength that ranges between 3,000 and 5,000 pounds per square inch (psi). It is widely used in residential, commercial, and industrial construction projects due to its affordability and versatility.

High Strength Concrete

High strength concrete is characterized by its increased compressive strength, usually exceeding 6,000 psi. This type of concrete is made by modifying the basic concrete mix, often by using a lower water to cement ratio, incorporating supplementary cementitious materials such as fly ash or slag cement, or using high-range water reducers. High strength concrete is commonly used in heavy-duty construction projects, such as bridges, high-rise buildings, and other structures that require exceptional load-bearing capacity and durability.

Lightweight Concrete

Lightweight concrete is made by replacing traditional aggregates with lightweight aggregates, such as expanded clay, shale, or slate, or using air-entraining admixtures. This type of concrete has a lower density and offers improved thermal insulation and fire resistance compared to normal concrete. Lightweight concrete is commonly used in the construction of non-load-bearing walls, partition walls, and building facades.

Pervious Concrete

Pervious concrete, also known as porous or permeable concrete, is a type of concrete designed to allow water to pass through its structure. It is made by using a mix with little or no fine aggregate, resulting in a highly porous structure. Pervious concrete is often used in environmentally friendly construction projects, such as parking lots, sidewalks, and stormwater management systems, as it reduces runoff and promotes groundwater recharge.

Prestressed Concrete

Prestressed concrete is a type of concrete in which the internal tensile stresses are induced before the concrete is subjected to external loads. This is achieved by pre-tensioning steel cables or strands within the concrete or applying post-tensioning forces after the concrete has hardened. Prestressed concrete offers improved durability, crack resistance, and load-bearing capacity compared to normal concrete, making it ideal for use in bridges, beams, slabs, and other heavy-duty construction elements.

Asphalt Concrete

Asphalt concrete, sometimes referred to as rolled asphalt or simply asphalt, is a composite material made of a mixture of aggregates and bitumen, a viscous, black, hydrocarbon binder. Although not technically a type of cement concrete, asphalt concrete is widely used in road construction, parking lots, and other pavement applications due to its durability, flexibility, and resistance to weather conditions.

Lime Concrete

Lime concrete is made by replacing portland cement with lime as the binding material. Lime concrete has been used for centuries in various forms, with its earliest known use dating back to ancient Roman construction. Lime concrete offers improved workability and a slower setting time compared to portland cement concrete, making it suitable for restoration projects and applications where the aesthetics of the finished product are crucial.

Wondering what the best concrete for your project is? Checkout our blog on choosing the right mix.

Additional Factors Affecting Concrete Properties

Beyond the basic ingredients and types of concrete, several factors can influence the properties and performance of concrete. These factors include:

Fly Ash

Fly ash, a byproduct of coal combustion, is a supplementary cementitious material used in concrete mixtures. It can partially replace portland cement, resulting in reduced cement consumption and improved workability. Fly ash also enhances the long-term strength and durability of concrete by refining the pore structure, reducing permeability, and increasing resistance to chemical attack.


Admixtures are chemical additives that modify the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. They can improve workability, accelerate or retard setting time, increase strength, reduce shrinkage, and enhance durability. Some common admixtures include air-entraining agents, water reducers, accelerators, retarders, and superplasticizers.

Weather Conditions

Weather conditions can significantly affect the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. High temperatures and hot weather can lead to rapid evaporation of water from the concrete mix, resulting in reduced workability and increased potential for cracking. On the other hand, cold weather can slow down the hydration process, leading to delayed setting and reduced early strength development. Proper precautions, such as using temperature-controlled curing methods, adjusting the mix proportions, or using admixtures, can help mitigate these issues.

Construction Practices

Proper construction practices, such as batching, mixing, placing, compacting, and curing, are critical for achieving the desired properties of concrete. Inadequate mixing can result in non-uniform distribution of ingredients, affecting the concrete’s strength and durability. Insufficient compaction can lead to trapped air voids, reducing the concrete’s load-bearing capacity. Proper curing ensures adequate hydration of the cement paste, promoting strength development and long-term durability.


Concrete is a versatile and essential construction material made of portland cement, water, and aggregates. With various types of concrete available, each with unique properties and applications, it is crucial to select the appropriate type for your specific construction project. By understanding what concrete is made of, you can ensure the durability, strength, and longevity of your structures, making them stand the test of time. If you need help with your next project, we would be happy to help!